A treasure hunter from Iran has found several golden coins with the OKM Bionic X4. These are so-called dinars. These dinars are most likely from the era of ruler Mahmud Ghazan.
Mahmud Ghazan was the leader of the Ilkhan dynasty, a dynasty descended from the descendants of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan. The coins discovered with the detector were most likely minted in 1298 or 1299.
The dinar was and is the historical gold nominal in southeastern Europe and in the Islamic cultural area. Therefore, the dinar is still a common form of currency in many mediterranean countries. The coins found, however, do not belong to any currently recognized monetary system called Dinar.
Modern currencies with the name Dinar are the Kuwait Dinar or the Jordanian Dinar. The found dinars can have a value of up to 3000 € and are characterized by a great minting.
Ilkhan Mahmud Ghazan: An Influential Ruler
Mahmud Ghazan, also known as Ghazan Khan, was one of the most important rulers of the Ilkhanate, a Mongol dynasty that existed from 1256 to 1335. The Ilkhanate - at times extended over all of Persia, Mesopotamia and large parts of Central Asia.
Mahmud Ghazan ruled from 1295 to 1304 and was the seventh ruler of the Ilkhans. His most notable achievement was the conversion of the Ilkhans to Islam.
Although Ghazan was raised in the Buddhist religion, he himself converted to Islam in 1292, at the age of 21. After coming to power, he introduced many Islamic laws and reforms.
He also promoted Persian culture and established Persian and Arabic as official languages. Through successful campaigns, the Ilkhanate reached its greatest expansion from present-day Pakistan to Turkey.
Despite Mahmud Ghazan's many achievements, however, there were numerous internal political revolts against his rule. He had to contend with corruption and disloyalty among his comrades-in-arms. In addition, frequent attacks on peasants and workers led to a deterioration of the internal political situation, as Ghazan was unable to do anything about it. After his death in 1304, his brother Öldscheitü took power and ended the period of religious tolerance that actually characterized Mongol rule. He also neglected the administration of the empire, which led to the later rise of many provinces to dynasties of their own.
Mesopotamia, the ancient empire located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, had a tremendous impact on the world today.
It spanned from about 3500 BC to 539 BC and was home to some of the oldest known civilizations, including the Sumerians, Babylonians, and Assyrians.
Ancient Egypt played a major role in the development of Mesopotamia. There was a strong trade relationship and regular cultural exchange between the civilizations.
Both regions were rich in natural resources such as grain, wood, metals and precious stones. These were exchanged via trade routes that crossed the deserts and rivers of the Middle East. There is archaeological evidence of the exchange of goods such as pottery, jewelry, and textiles between the two civilizations.
Cultural exchange also took place, especially in the field of writing and religion. Mesopotamia developed cuneiform writing, while ancient Egypt developed its hieroglyphic writing. Evidence suggests that the Egyptians knew the cuneiform script and, conversely, the Mesopotamians were familiar with the hieroglyphic script.
The Sumerians, who lived in southern Mesopotamia, were pioneers in many fields. They developed the world's first writing system, cuneiform, which formed the basis for the development of writing in other cultures. This revolutionary form of communication enabled the recording of laws, literature, and historical events, and laid the foundation for the written word that continues to shape our societies today. They were also known for their advanced agricultural techniques, such as irrigation systems and the use of plows and oxen. These innovations contributed to the development of cities and the emergence of a complex society.
The Babylonians, who took control of Mesopotamia in the 18th century BC, were known for their legislation, legal system, and mathematics. The famous Codex Hammurabi, a code of law based on a principle of "an eye for an eye," influenced the development of law in many later cultures. The Babylonians were also masters of astronomy and developed the first known calendar based on the movements of the heavenly bodies. Time measurement and organization of life were now possible and became increasingly important. They introduced concepts such as the number zero and the number system with base 60, which influenced the development of modern mathematics.
The Assyrians, who ruled northern Mesopotamia, were known for their military might and expansion. They developed advanced warfare techniques and built a vast empire that stretched from Egypt to Persia. The Assyrians were also known for their monumental architecture and impressive palaces.
In addition, Mesopotamia was a center of trade, which led to the development of complex economic systems. The use of standardized weights and measures and the establishment of legal codes and contracts created a framework for commercial transactions that influences our modern business practices. The cultural and artistic achievements of Mesopotamia also left an indelible mark on human history. The magnificent ziggurats, towering temple complexes dedicated to various deities, demonstrated the architectural skill of the Mesopotamians. Their elaborate sculptures, ceramics and jewelry testified to a sophisticated artistic sensibility that continues to inspire artists today.
Overall, Mesopotamia, as the cradle of civilization, has had an enormous impact on the world today. The achievements in the fields of writing, mathematics, astronomy, law, art and economy have laid the foundation for our modern society and show how advanced and innovative the people in this empire have been.